Tuesday, 17 November 2015

BHP Iron Ore Cars HO Scale


Marbelup Models has developed HO scale 3D-printed models of 4 different types of ore cars as used by BHP Iron Ore in the Pilbara region of Western Australia.

The 4 versions are:

  • "Comeng" - built 1969-1982
  • "Goninans tapered floor" - built 1997-1998
  • "Goninans flat floor" - built 1999-2000
  • "Golynx" - built 2001-2003 approx.
The Comeng ore cars are very similar to the original Oroville cars imported from the US at the start of the Mt Newman Mining operation in the 1960's.  For more information and photos of the prototype wagons, see the Pilbara Railways web site.

"Comeng" ore car (computer rendering)

"Goninans tapered floor" ore car (computer rendering)
All of the ore cars are supplied as "body only", the only other parts included are Kadee #262 coupler boxes.  The modeller must supply and fit bogies and couplers, as well as detail items such as brake wheel, air hoses, handrails, etc.  The level of detail is optional, to some extent, depending on the modeller's preferences.

The models accept Kadee #148 or #158 whisker couplers.  These are available from Hobby shops in bulk packs of couplers only, in addition to the usual packs of 2-pairs of couplers with boxes.

As an option, the models will also accept Glatzl rotary couplers (at one end) which are available from the US through Sergent Engineering.  Sergent also sell matching dummy couplers which work well with the Glatzl rotary couplers.  Both the Glatzl rotary and dummy couplers will mate with Kadee "scale head" couplers but will not couple or uncouple automatically.  A simple modification is required to the Glatzl rotary couplers prior to installation, as they intended to directly fit onto a specific US coal car which has different dimensions to the BHP ore cars.

Left: "Goninans flat floor" in Polyamide material. Right: "Golynx" car in Prime Grey material. (Click on any photo to see enlarged version.)
The BHP ore cars are available in two different 3D-printed materials: Polyamide and Prime Gray.  The Polyamide material is about half the price of Prime Gray and has a slightly rough surface texture.  Costs for the ore cars are as follows:
  • Polyamide material: $25 each for minimum quantity of 5.
  • Prime Gray material: $55 each, no minimum quantity
  • Prime Gray material: $50 each, minimum quantity of 5.
All price are subject to change depending on variations on the exchange rate with the Euro.

Refer to the "How to Order" page for information on ordering and postage (if required).  These models require a 50% deposit at time of ordering.


Sunday, 15 November 2015

What's In the Works

This page provides a sneak preview of projects currently in development or being contemplated.

Feel free to email Marbelup Models if you are interested in any of these models and would like to be kept informed of progress.  Your feedback and interest may well influence priorities for design of future models.  Also feel free to nominate ideas for possible future models.

WAGR Clerestory Roof Z Van (also Commonwealth Railways NY and NYA)


These guards vans date from the late 1890's and there were versions with platforms at one ends or both ends.  Some lasted into the 1970's in departmental service so, even in the diesel era, it would not be out of place to have one parked on a siding or as part of a work train.

Quite a few were transferred to Commonwealth Railways during WWII.  New Zealand railways had some very similar vans (single ended) which have been previously available in brass.  Correct bogies are available for the Sn3½ version from North Yard in New Zealand.

Project Status: Test models have arrived in 4 mm scale.  Design for double-ended version is almost complete in Sn3½.  Could be produced for HOn3½ (or even HOn3) if their is demand.

WAGR/Westrail XW Grain Hopper



The XW (and later variations) were the most numerous grain hoppers on the WAGR/Westrail narrow gauge lines and were introduced in 1972.

The model can be potentially produced in both Sn3½ and HOn3½ scale (or HO if you don't mind the gauge difference!)

Project Status: Information gathered.  3D drawing commenced for basic body shape.  Lots of details to be added.  Research commenced re custom-etched roofwalks and ladders.

WAGR QU Flat Wagon


The QU's were the first "modern" flat wagon on the narrow gauge, dating from 1963.  Unusually, they were painted black initially and then yellow.

The model can be potentially produced in both Sn3½ and HOn3½ scale.

Project Status: Photos and measurements taken of stored wagons at Pemberton.  3D design not started.

WAGR/Westrail WFX Flat Wagon

Project Status: A few people interested in HO model.  Not started yet.



Friday, 13 November 2015

WW Assembly Tips

Parts List

  • Bogies: e.g. "100-ton roller bearing" by Kadee part no 569 or 1569 (see below) or Tichy #3009 (1 pair) or #3036 (10 pairs)
  • Couplers: Kadee #148 or #158 (see below)
  • Replacement Metal Wheelsets 36" diameter - if using Tichy bogies, e.g. Intermountain #40051 (4 per wagon).
  • Coupler boxes: Kadee #262 (supplied)
  • Air Brake Hoses, e.g. Detail Associates #6206
  • Brass wire: 0.4 mm for handrails, etc.
  • Fixing screws: 2 x 2-56 x 8 mm (5/16") metal, 2 x 2-56 x 12 mm (1/2") nylon - (see below)
  • Glue, paint, decals
Marbelup Models can supply "Parts Kit" containing all of the above items, with the exception of glue, paint and decals, with a choice of Kadee or Tichy bogies.

Removing Support Structures


Carefully remove the support structure from the wagon.  It is suggested to use a sharp knife to cut the supports away from visible areas.  Take particular care around the roofwalk supports at the ends of the wagon, and the discharge hatches at the bottom of the wagon.  There should be a row of supports along each side of the wagon, under the side sills.  Once these are removed, the supports under the discharge hatches will be visible.

Typical Support Structure prior to removal.
Once the majority of the support structure has been removed, carefully go over the wagon and cut away the small supports which typically extend from one part to another including, for example, inside the coupler housing.  An Exacto type hobby knife with a sharp pointed blade (Exacto #11 or similar) is quite useful for getting into the nooks and crannies.  

Go over the model and smooth off any remnants of the fine supports, expecially in the visible areas.  A sanding stick or small file can be useful for this.

Bogie and Coupler Mounting Holes


The mounting holes for the couplers and bogies have been printed at 1.8 mm diameter to suit 2-56 screws.  

Due to the difficulty of tapping the blind holes for the bogies, the 3D print includes vertical grooves in the sides of the holes to help the screws cut their own threads, so tapping the holes is not required nor recommended.

Note: An economical source of steel 2-56 screws in various lengths is Little Bird Electronics.  

Bogies


The suggested bogies are Kadee #569 or #1569, the only difference being the width of the wheels.  Atlas and Athearn and others make similar bogies, but the advantage of the Kadee ones is that they add some weight to the wagon due to the use of a relatively heavy plastic material.

Tichy Train Group also makes an economical 1-piece plastic bogie #3009 (1 pair) or #3036 (10 pairs), however these are supplied with relatively low quality plastic wheelsets which are also too small in diameter (33").  Intermountain Railway Company sell high quality all-brass wheelsets which fit well in the Tichy bogies and are the correct size, i.e. 36".

Note that Intermountain do also sell complete roller bearing bogies but these are supplied with 33" wheelsets only.  Be wary of other brands of bogies as well.  In general, US roller bearing bogie (trucks) described as "100-ton" have 36" wheelsets and "70-ton" have 33" wheelsets.

Note that the depth of the blind holes for the bogies is 4 mm.  If using Kadee bogies, the supplied screws will need trimming to a length of 7.5 - 8 mm to avoid damaging the wagon (or shorter screws substituted).  Do not drill the bogie mounting holes any deeper, as they are directly under the ends of the hopper and the drilled hole will "break through" and be visible on the finished model.

Couplers


The WW is designed for Kadee "whisker" couplers.  Either the #158 (scale size) or #148 (normal size) couplers can be used, with #262 draft gear boxes.

The draft gear boxes supplied with the couplers do not fit as they have a different mounting hole position.  The #262 draft gear boxes, which are available separately, are narrower and have been used because they allow details such as the brake hoses to be positioned the scale distance from the wagon centre line.  Also, the #262 draft gear boxes are easier to use as the lid snaps into position.

Because of the deep end sill on the WW series of wagons, the model has been designed so the coupler and draft gear box slides into a recess via a hole in the end sill.  Make sure that any remnants of support structure from the 3D printing process have been cleaned up from inside the coupler mounting recess.

The draft gear box will probably be a snug fit inside the mounting recess.  A hole has been provided for a 2-56 fixing screw to prevent the coupler from being pulled out.  Note that the maximum length of the screw is 4.25 mm, so it is likely the screw will have to be cut to length.  Provided a metal screw is first used to create a thread in the provided hole, a nylon screw (e.g. Kadee #256) can be used for the permanent fixing.  A nylon screw is much easier to cut to the desired length, and the Kadee nylon screws have a low profile head which provides maximum clearance for the outboard axles.

Kadee nylon 2-56 screws are available from good hobby shops.

Note that the height from rail level to the top of coupler mounting surface should be 11.5 mm, the standard for Kadee couplers.

Brake Rods


There are 3 brakes rods which can be formed from 0.4 mm brass wire: one long one which runs along the side of the wagon and 2 short ones, which disappear into holes provided in the ends of the hopper.

Brake Rods - 2 out of 3 shown.
Typically, the holes for the brake rods are printed at 0.4 mm diameter but all will require cleaning out using a pin vice and drill bit, e.g. 0.45 mm.

Note that cleaning out the hole in the longer of the two brake levers is a bit tricky, due to its location under the sloping end of the hopper.  This hole has been printed at 0.6 mm but will probably still need cleaning out.  One option is to use a length of 0.4 mm brass wire, approx. 75 mm long, held in a pin vice as a crude drill, by cutting one end at approx. 45 degrees to form cutting surfaces.  This long "drill" can then be poked through the gaps in the supports for the roofwalk (prior to fitting the roofwalk, of course) to reach the hole in the brake lever.  Another, perhaps better, alternative is to use a purpose-made cutting broach, such as the ones available from DCC Concepts.  These have a long, tapered cutting blade which can be used for enlarging small holes.  The second smallest broach in the DCC Concepts set is a suitable size for this application, as the diameter near the tip is just over 0.4 mm.
Cutting Broaches

The holes for the long brake rod, which links the two brake levers, theoretically, measure 137.4 mm centre-to-centre.  This brake rod should have a 90-degree bend at each end, approx 1 mm long to fit in the holes.  Because of variations in the 3D-printing process, the actual length required may vary slightly, so some fitting will be required.  When the brake rod fits between in the holes at each end, it should be secured in place with superglue and also glued to the 5 support brackets along the side of the wagon.

The two short brake rods should each be approx. 12 mm long, with a 90-degree bend at one end, approx. 1 mm long.  The straight end fits in the hole provided in the end of the hopper and the bent into fits into the corresponding brake lever.

Handrails


The WW has an inverted U-shaped handrail at the end near the handbrake, and a pair of vertical handrails at the opposite end.  In addition, the AGWY/AGSY has 2 more pairs of vertical handrails at other corners.  Small starter holes have been provided to locate handrails, which should be drilled out, e.g. with a 0.45 mm drill bit in a pin vice.

The handrails can be formed from 0.4 mm brass wire.  The U-shaped handrail is 6 mm wide (centre to centre) and 8.5 mm high, which allows for 1 mm to be inserted into the holes.  The vertical handrails are also 8.5 mm high.


Door Operating Mechanism Rods (optional)


As an optional detail item, small holes have been provided for three rods which form part of the door operating mechanism on the real WW's.  The holes should be cleaned out with a 0.45 mm drill bit, after which the rods can be cut from 0.4 mm brass wire and glued into position.

From left to right, as picture below, the lengths of the rods are approx. 14.5, 15, and 13.5 mm.



Air Brake Hoses


Small brackets are provided next to the couplers on each end of the wagon for air brake hoses.  Cast plastic hoses are available from Detail Associates, part number 6206.  Carefully drill out the starter hole provided in the supporting bracket to suit the diameter of the "pipe" on the air hose.  A suggested drill size is 0.65 mm.

Uncoupling Levers


A small starter hole has been provided underneath the coupler, as well as a notched bracket towards the left side of the wagon, when view from the end.  The uncoupling lever can be shaped from 0.4 mm brass wire, with a 90 degree bend for attachment into the central fixing hole.   The diagram below shows the approximate shape to aim for, but feel free to adjust the measurements to suit your model.


After positioning each uncoupling lever, check that the coupler can swing freely and is not obstructed, prior to gluing it into position.

Filling Discharge Door Openings (optional)


If desired, the rectangular holes in the bottom discharge doors can be filled with pieces of styrene sheet.  Suggested dimensions are 5 mm x 9 mm x 0.5 mm thick.  Small ledges have been provided inside the openings for this purpose.

It was necessary to leave these holes open for the 3D-printing process (stereolithography) to allow the unused liquid plastic resin to drain from the interior of the hopper.

Etched Brass Parts


The supplied etched parts consist of:
  • roofwalk and ladder assembly
  • brake wheel
  • small steps (x3)
  • large step
For all of the etched parts, the first step is to cut them free from the "fret", e.g. using a knife.  The small attachment points are etched half way through to make cutting easier. Note that this will dull the knife blade, so don't use a new blade (or use a "snap-off" blade and discard the dulled blade.

Using a small file, remove any roughness at the attachment points and clean up any other areas requiring attention.  Sometimes, due to variations in the etching over the entire sheet, small sections of very thin brass can remain but these are easy to clean up.

Roofwalk and Ladders (WW only, not AGWY/AGSY)

The roofwalk has attached ladders which need to the folder "down" and handrails (both loop and straight) which need to he folder "up".  Note that the etch is symmetrical so it doesn't matter which is up or down to start with.



While there are special tools available for precisely folding etched brass models, a pair of pliers with smooth jaws or a small vice will do a pretty good job.

Completed folding, using a small vice.

If using a vice, for example, the sequence of folding is as follows:
  1. Clamp the roofwalk with the ladder pointing up and the etch of the roofwalk level with the top of the jaws.  For this step, the ladder can be roughly in the centre of the vice.
  2. Using an object with hard surface and sharp, square corners (such as the handle of a small "engineers" square), fold the ladder away from you.  Take care to NOT fold the straight handrail at the same time, and try to get a nice, sharp fold.  Fold to an angle of about 80 degrees, not the full 90 degrees.
  3. Fold the straight handrail towards you, this time to 90 degrees.
  4. Reposition the roofwalk in the vice so that the end of the main section of the roofwalk is level with the end of the vice jaws.
  5. Fold the loop handrail towards you, to 90 degrees.
  6. Repeat for the other end, taking care to match the directions of folding.
Once folded, test fit the roofwalk in position on top of the wagon.  Small, spring tweezers (e.g. Kadee #1020) are useful for lightly clamping it in position at each end.  The ends of the ladders should fit into small notched provided in the side sills of the wagon.  The ends of the ladder may be a fraction of a millimetre too long.  If this is the case, trim the ends using sharp sidecutters or similar tool.  (A Xuron track cutter is ideal.)

Adjust the fold angle of the ladders slightly, if necessary, to ensure the roofwalk sits level on the supports at the end of the wagon while the bottom of the ladders fits into the notches in the side sill.

When satisfied with the fit, glue the ladder in position with superglue.  However,  You may want to consider gluing the roofwalk on only after all other assembly work has been completed as the wagon needs to be handled with care once the roofwalk is fitted, to avoid damaging the handrails on top.

Steps (Same for WW and AGWY/AGSY)

The single, larger step should be fitted to the corner of the wagon nearest the handrake.  The bottom end of the step has a half-etched fold line, and the top of the step should be folded in the opposite direction.  



The three, smaller steps should be fitted in the remaining corners of the wagon.  They require a single 90-degree fold at the top of each step.


Note the step locations and orientation, as per the diagrams below.  Glue the steps to the underside of the wagon with superglue.

Step Locations - Handbrake End

Step Locations - Handbrake End (bottom view)

Handbrake Wheel


A 0.5 mm spigot has been provided on the handbrake assembly, to which the wheel can be glued.  If necessary, open out the central hole in the handbrake wheel with a 0.6 or 0.7 mm drill bit to fit over the spigot.

Weighting


Compartments have been provided at each end of the WW for gluing lead shot or small pieces of sheet lead to add extra weight.  Non-lead based alternatives are also available including "Liquid Gravity".

With the suggested Kadee bogies, the completed WW weighs approx. 60 grams.  For this length wagon, the NMRA recommended weight is 110 grams, although some modellers feel that the NMRA weight recommendations are excessive.  A total weight of somewhere between 90 and 100 grams is probably about right.

Weight Compartments (arrowed)

Painting


Either enamel or acrylic hobby paints can be used to paint the finished model.  The model pictured has been painted with Testors Model Master Enamel colour "Gelb RLM 04".  (Gelb is German for yellow!)

WW Wheat Wagon (Standard Gauge, HO Scale)

Photo of test model.
The WAGR/Westrail WW standard gauge wheat wagon entered service in 1966 and formed the mainstay of the standard gauge grain fleet for over 45 years until Cooperative Bulk Handling introduced their own locomotives and rollingstock in 2012.  They were affectionately known as "Willie Weeties".  

The Marbelup Models WW consists of a 1-piece 3D-printed body and an etched brass roofwalk which incorporate the ladders and handrails as a "fold-up" assembly (no soldering required).  Additional etched brass parts are also included for the corner steps and brake wheel.


WW with L class (loco by Haskell Models)
For prototype information, please refer to the WA Wagon Pages.

The later version with air-operated roof hatch and no roofwalks, i.e. the AGWY and AGSY, is also available.  The difference between the prototype AGWY and AGSY relates to improved seals on the discharge hatches (AGSY) to allow use with canola, which is finer than other grains.  The model can represent either version.  Some WW's also had the improved seals fitted and were coded WWS.


The AGWY/AGSY has an extra air cylinder on the end opposite the brake wheel, in connection with the air-operated roof hatch.
Side of AGWY/AGSY showing runner for air-operated roof hatch.
Opposite side of AGWY/AGSY.
Detail on brake wheel end of AGWY/AGSY.
Both the WW and AGWY/AGSY are available to order now. 

Expected selling prices for the body-only "kit" (including etched parts and Kadee #262 coupler boxes) are $80 for WW and $80 for AGWY plus postage if required.  (Prices are subject to variation due to changes in the Euro exchange rate.)

The purchaser must separately obtain parts to complete the model including bogies, couplers, brass wire, paint and decals.  Suitable bogies are available from Kadee (#569 or #1569).  Detailed instructions including list of parts required are now available online.  

Marbelup Models has ordered some suitable bogies and these will be available, together with couplers, air hoses, brass wire and fixing screws, as a "parts kit", containing all the extra parts necessary to produce a running model.  Quantities are limited.  Glue, paint and decals not included.  Two types of "parts kit" will be available:

"Premium Parts Kit" including Kadee #569 bogies, and parts as listed above: $25 per wagon.
"Quality Parts Kit" including Tichy #3009 bogies, Intermountain metal wheelsets, and parts listed above: $15 per wagon.

The Kadee bogies are from HGC plastic, and are a 2-piece design which provides compensation over uneven track.  They are are also self-centering, an aid to placing wagons on the track.  Kadee wheelsets have black metal wheels on a plastic (Delrin) axles.

The Tichy bogies are 1-piece moulded in plastic.  Intermountain wheelsets have brass wheels and axles, with a weathered finish.





Marbelup Models - How to Order

In general, 3D printed models are available to order, as Marbelup Models does not hold stock of most models.  The models are printed "on-demand" for each order.  Just send an email with your requirements to marbelupmodels@iinet.net.au, and I can confirm pricing, postage, etc.

Delivery time is 2-4 weeks from i.Materialise in Belgium.  Orders for more than two of some complicated items will take longer as experience has indicated that i.Materialise take more care in production and packaging for small shipments, so larger orders may be split over several shipments.

A deposit is appreciated with your order.  For WAGR/Westrail models in Sn3½ or HO scale, a deposit of 25% is requested.  For all other models, a deposit of 50% is requested.  

If required, postage from Perth, Western Australia, to your location is an additional cost.  The typical cost for packing and postage for 1-3 models within Australia is $10 (up to 500 grams).  For larger orders, Marbelup Models can provide an estimate of postage on request.

Payment can be made by direct bank transfer, PayPal or Qantas Cash.  If sending funds by PayPal, please be aware that PayPal includes a fee which is typically AU$0.30 plus 2.6% if the funds are drawn from your credit card.  If paying from your credit card, please add this fee to your payment (or ask us to send a PayPal invoice) to ensure that the correct amount is transferred.  PayPal payments should be sent to marbelupmodels@iinet.net.au  Contact us for further details for bank or Qantas Cash transfers.

All prices, apart from those for models available for immediate purchase, are subject to exchange rate variations between the $Australian and Euro. 

Tuesday, 13 October 2015

WBC Guards Van Construction Tips

The WBC guards van is printed in two sections, representing approx one-third and two-thirds of the van.

Removing Support Structures


Carefully remove the support structure from both parts of the guard's van.  It is suggested to use a sharp knife to carefully cut the supports away from the roof, ends, and the underframe.  Take particular care around the steps, gas cylinders and the brake gear underneath the floor.

Once the majority of the support structure has been removed, carefully go over both parts and cut away the small supports which typically extend from one part to another, for example, around the brake gear.  An Exacto type hobby knife with a sharp pointed blade (Exacto #11 or similar) is quite useful for getting into the nooks and crannies.

Additional "guards" have been printed, as shown below, to protect the side and end steps during production and shipping.  Once all supports have been removed around the steps, these guards can be cut away from the floor of the van.  Altnernatively, you may wish to leave these guards in place until most of the other work on the van has been completed.  Note that there is also a guard behind the dividing bar on the large, rectangular window.



Go over the model and smooth off any remnants of the fine supports which will be visible after assembly.

When finished, test fit the two halves together but do not glue them together until the glazing has been prepared.

Window Glazing


Each side of the WBC has guides adjacent to the windows to secure glazing material and slots in the floor which allow the glazing to be inserted after the model is painted.

However, the glazing must be prepared and test-fitted before the two halves of the body are glued together.  Each piece of glazing is identified by means of lettering on the underside of floor L1-L5, R1-R5.

WBC Glazing Right Side (Left Side is the same)
The glazing material (i.e. 0.25 mm clear styrene) should be cut into strips approx 50 mm long and test fitted into slots and guides.  The widths of the strips are as follows:

R1, R5, L1, L5: 9.75 mm (4 required)

R2, R3, L2, L3: 8.25 mm (4 required)

R4, L4: 12.75 mm (2 required)

Ensure that the slots in the floor for each piece of glazing are free of obstructions, e.g. supports from the 3D printing process.  If necessary, clear the slots using a very fine knife blade until the glazing strips can be inserted from below the floor.

Test fit the glazing strips into the guides either side of the windows.  If necessary, clear out the grooves in the guide using a very fine knife.  Another possible technique is to use a scrap piece of 0.25 mm brass as a tool by inserting it into the slots in the floor.

Once satisfied with the fit of each glazing strip, mark each strip where it won't be visible later with the appropriate position code, i.e. L1-L5, R1-R5 and set it aside.  The strips can be trimmed to length now or later, at the time of final installation.

Body Assembly 

Once the window glazing has been prepared and marked for later installation, the two body sections can be glued together, e.g. with superglue.  Some filling and sanding will be required at the join, particularly on the roof.  The join on the ends is disguised by the vertical ribs.  Tamiya plastic putty works well as a filling material.

When filling and sanding the roof, be careful not to damage the raised ventilator on the roof.  If damaged, a "spare" has been printed within the centre sill on the underframe which can be installed in place of the damaged one.

Fixing Holes


The fixing holes for the couplers and bogies are intended for 2-56 (or 8BA) screws.  The holes  should accept screws without tapping.  If the screws seem particularly tight, drill through with a 1.8 mm drill bit.

Bogies


The Marbelup Models WBC bogies are printed in two identical halves.  A set contains four pieces to make one pair of bogies.  As with other 3D printed parts, the first step is to removed the supports structure and clean up the small supports in the holes in the bogie sideframes, around the springs, etc.


The bolster section of each bogie half contains two holes intended for 1.5 x 6 mm self-tapping screws (which are supplied with the bogies).  The larger hole nearest the narrow end of the bolster is a "clearance" hole and should be cleaned out with a 1.5 mm drill.  The smaller hole, nearest the bogie sideframe, should cleaned out with a 1.2 mm drill.  Carefully drive a self-tapping screw into each of the 1.2 mm holes to form the thread.  If it feels tight, back the screw out a bit before continuing.

The bogie sideframes contain holes for fitting brass pinpoint bearings (available from Railwest Models).  These holes should be cleaned out with a 2 mm drill bit, after which the bearings should press fit into place.  The bogies are designed for 10.5 mm disc wheels with 25 mm axles.  Suitable wheels are available from various suppliers, including Steam Era Models (Part No. WH5).  SEM retailers include End of the Line Hobbies in Victor Harbour, SA, Casula Hobbies in Sydney and Train World in Melbourne.

After assembly, clean out the centre pivot hole with a 2.2 mm drill bit to suit 2-56 mounting screws.  (2.2 mm provides adequate clearance without excessive slop.)

Couplers


The WBC is designed for Kadee "whisker" couplers.  Either the #158 (scale size) or #148 (normal size) couplers can be used, with #262 draft gear boxes.  Because the #262 draft gear boxes are a bit hard to obtain, Marbelup Models now supplies these free of charge with each model that requires them.

Note that the height from rail level to the coupler mounting surface should be 11.5 mm, the standard for Kadee couplers.

Handrails


Small starter holes have been provided to locate the various handrails, which can be formed from 0.4 mm brass wire.  The starter holes will need to be drilled out, e.g. with a 0.45 mm drill bit in a pin vice.
Handrail Locations
The approx. dimensions for bending each handrail are as follows:

End Handrails: 10.5 mm between hole centres.  4 required each end.

Door Handrails: 16 mm between hole centres.  4 required each side.  Note that these holes are at an angle of approx. 45 degrees, when view from the top of the van.

Door Handles: 1.75 mm between hole centres.  2 required each side.

Roof Handrails: 5 mm between hole centres.  4 required.

Handrails should be fixed in place with superglue.


Brake Rods


There are 5 brake rods which should also be formed from 0.4 mm wire, and the starter holes drilled out with a 0.45 mm drill bit.

Brake Rod Locations
Approx lengths are as follows:

Long brake rod: 33 mm not including right angle bend (approx. 1 mm) at one end.

Medium brake rod: 22 mm not including right angle bend (approx. 1 mm) at one end.

Handbrake rod (near gas cylinders): 10.8 mm not including right angle bends (approx. 1 mm) at both ends.

Brake Lever Rods (near brake cylinder): 11.7 mm and 12.4 mm not including right angle bends (approx. 1 mm) at both ends.

Air Brake Hoses


Small starter holes are provided next to the couplers on each end of the van for air brake hoses.  Cast plastic hoses are available from Detail Associates, part number 6206.  Carefully drill out the starter holes to suit the diameter of the "pipe" on the air hose.  A suggested drill size is 0.65 mm.

Uncoupling Levers


A spiggot with a vertical fixing hole has been provided underneath the van, next to the coupler, as well as a notched bracket towards the left side of the van, when view from the end.  The uncoupling lever can be shaped from 0.4 mm brass wire, with a 90 degree bend for attachment into the central fixing hole.

The diagram below shows the approximate shape to aim for, but feel free to adjust the measurements to suit your model.



After positioning the uncoupling levers, check that the coupler can swing freely and is not obstructed.  After fixing the uncoupling levers in place, it should still be possible to remove the coupler and draught gear box, e.g. for painting, by sliding it out towards the end of the van.

Weighting


If required, additional weight can be added by gluing lead shot or sheet lead between the various frame members of the underframe, where it would not be seen in normal operation.  Weight can also be fixed inside the van prior to assembling the two parts, but it should be securely fixed in place (e.g. screwed) to ensure it doesn't come loose.

Painting


Either enamel or acrylic hobby paints can be used to paint the finished model.

Thursday, 1 October 2015

Clerestory Roof Z Van Construction Tips

The clerestory roof Z van is printed in two sections, representing approx one-third and two-thirds of the van.  Versions are available with end platforms at one or both ends.  These instructions apply to both versions.

At this stage, the Sn3½ and4 mm scale version of the van have been produced.

Removing Support Structures


Carefully remove the support structure from both parts of the guard's van.  It is suggested to use a sharp knife  carefully cut the supports away from the roof, ends, and the underframe.  Take particular care around the running boards, brake hoses, handbrake pillars and the brake gear underneath the floor.

Because of the ribbing on the brake hoses, the 3D printer's automatic software has generated many support points, which may have merged into one.  Carefully cut between the brake hose and the support structure, using repeated cuts with a sharp knife (e.g. Olfa snap-off blade type), to separate the support structure, then carefully trim the remnants from the hose.

Once the majority of the support structure has been removed, carefully go over both parts and cut away the small supports which typically extend from one part to another, for example, around the brake rigging.  An Exacto type hobby knife with a sharp pointed blade (Exacto #11 or similar) is quite useful for getting into the nooks and crannies.

Additional "guards" have been printed, as shown below, to protect the steps during production and shipping.  Once all supports have been removed around the steps, these guards can be cut away from the floor of the van.



Go over the model and smooth off any remnants of the fine supports, especially on the edge of the roof on the open side of the main body section.  A sanding stick or small file can be useful for this.  Be sure to clean up remnants of supports on the clerestory roof windows on the open side of the larger section, as these will be difficult to get to once the two sections are joined.

When finished, test fit the two halves together.  Interlock the square pins on the larger section with the square holes on the smaller section. The square pins will each have a "bump" from the supports on the end, so carefully trim these away.

It may be necessary to sand the edge of the roof of the smaller section where if fits under the clerestory roof on the larger section.

When satisfied with the fit, glue the two sections together, e.g. with super glue.  (Note:  If intending to add weight inside the van (See below.), do it now before gluing the sections together.) It may be necessary to lightly clamp the ends of the roof while gluing to get a tight fit.  To get a smooth finish at the join, particularly on the roof, some filling and sanding will be required.  Tamiya plastic putty works well for the filling.

Tapping Holes


The mounting holes for the couplers and bogies are intended for 2-56 (or 8BA) screws.  The bogie mounting holes should accept screws without tapping.

Note for 4 mm scale version: Because of the thinness of the floor where the couplers are mounted, the holes should be drilled through with a 1.8 mm drill in a pin vice, and tapped.

Note:  Tapping the holes is preferable to using self-tapping screws which may fracture the material.  Although fairly robust, the material is more brittle than styrene or polyurethane.  

Bogies


Sn3½ version:  Correct bogies are available in kit form from NorthYard in New Zealand - Part No. B1656.  Wheels are included.

4 mm scale version: The VR TT30 bogies from Steam Era Models are a reasonable substitute.  Each bogie fixing on the guards can include two ridges which may need to be ground away to allow the van to sit at the correct height.  The ridges add 0.5 mm to the height.

Couplers


The ZBA is designed for Kadee "whisker" couplers.  Either the #158 (scale size) or #148 (normal size) couplers can be used, with #262 draft gear boxes.

The draft gear boxes supplied with the couplers do not fit as they have a different mounting hole position.  The #262 draft gear boxes are narrower and have been used because they allow details such as the brake hoses to be positioned the scale distance from the van centre line.  Also, the #262 draft gear boxes are easier to use as the lid snaps into position.

Note that the height from rail level to the coupler mounting surface should be 11.5 mm, the standard for Kadee couplers.

Truss Rods


The truss rods can be formed from brass wire.

4 mm Scale Version: From a length of 0.5 or 0.6 mm wire,  64 mm long, form a 18° bend 19 mm in from each end, to leave a horizontal section 26 mm long.

S Scale Version: From a length of 0.8 mm wire, 78 mm long, form a 18° bend 23 mm in from each end, to leave a horizontal section 32 mm long.


The truss rods should fit in the recesses in the bottom of the queen posts and in the grooves provided on the inside of the sideframe members.

Handrails


Small starter holes have been provided to locate the various handrails, which can be formed from 0.4 mm brass wire.  The starter holes will need to be drilled out, e.g. with a 0.45 mm drill bit in a pin vice.

Handrail Locations
The long handrails on each side curve down at the ends, and starter holes have been provided in the corners of the body, which are angled at 45ยบ to the sides and ends.  Turned brass handrail knobs are available in various lengths (e.g. from Markits), to allow for the thickness of the doors (0.8 mm), so that the handrails remain parallel to the sides.  Note that there should be a gap in the handrail on the opening side of the door (closest to the guard's lookout).

The starter holes for the vertical railings at the end go right through the end beams. Take care when drilling these out to keep the hole vertical.  The vertical railings can be inserted from above into the holes in the end beams, then pushed up into the holes in the end of the roof.  If replicating the horizontal rails at the ends, these can be soldered between the vertical railing prior to installation.

4 mm Scale Version:  The horizontal rail should be 12.7 mm above the floor level.  The vertical railings should be 8.5 mm apart (centre to centre).

S Scale Version:  The horizontal rail should be 12.7 mm above the floor level.  The vertical railings should be 8.5 mm apart (centre to centre).

Brake Stands 


The brake stands should have an L-shaped handle, as per the diagram below.  One option is to simply bend a piece of 0.4 mm brass wire and glue it to the top of the brake stand.

A slightly more complex option is to solder a vertical wire to the L-shaped handle, for fixing into the brake stand.  If using this option, the inside of the brake stand is hollow but the upper section would need to be drilled out (0.45 mm) from below to accommodate the vertical wire.

4 mm Scale:  The horizontal part of the handle should be approx. 6.3 mm long and the vertical part approx. 1.8 mm.

S Scale:  The horizontal part of the handle should be approx. 7 mm long and the vertical part approx. 2 mm.



Weighting


If required, additional weight can be added inside the van or, alternatively, by gluing lead shot or sheet lead between the various frame members of the underframe, where it would not be seen in normal operation.  If adding weight inside the van, ensure it is fixed securely (e.g. screwed) so that it can't come loose at a later time, and that the weight is symmetrical about the longitudinal centre line of the van..

For the S scale model, the desired weight is about 95 grams.  (Refer to Sn3½ blog article.)  Using the suggested North Yard bogies, the weight of the van is about 68 grams, so about 27 grams if additional weight is required.

Painting


Either enamel or acrylic hobby paints can be used to paint the finished model.  

Tuesday, 15 September 2015

WAGR/Westrail WBC Standard Gauge Guards Van


Marbelup Models has developed an HO scale model of the WAGR WBC guards vans.  These were introduced in 1966 and were the most numerous of the standard gauge guards vans.  

Although similar to the South Australian Railways 8300 class vans (previously available in HO scale from Lima), there are quite a few differences, particularly with respect to the placement and size of the windows.  The WBC also had different "semi-passenger" bogies, which Marbelup Models has reproduced as 3D-printed parts.


For more information on the prototype, see the standard gauge section of the WA Wagon Pages.

The body of the WBC is 3D-printed in 2 sections, with "teeth" and matching sockets for alignment and strength when joined.  Some filling is required on the roof after joining the sections.  At the ends, the join is aligned with one of the vertical channel sections.


Included detail includes side and end steps, lamp brackets, tail-lamps & conduits, and gas cylinders on the underframe.  The modeller is required to add some details from brass wire, including handrails on the doors, ends and roof, and uncoupling levers.

A "first" for this model is the inclusion of slots in the underframe to allow the window glazing (0.25 mm clear styrene) to be inserted from below after the model is assembled and painted, resulting in a "near flushglaze" appearance.

Note that the "kit" includes the 3D-printed parts only.  The purchaser must separately obtain other parts including wheels, couplers, brass wire, window glazing, etc.  Refer to the construction tips for more information.

The cost of the WBC body will be approximately $100, and $35 per pair for the bogies (not including wheels).  Prices are subject to variation based on the exchange rate with the Euro.

Friday, 4 September 2015

WSH/XM Ballast Wagon Instructions

Removing Support Structures


Carefully remove the support structure from the wagon.  It is suggested to use a sharp knife to cut the supports away from visible areas.  Take particular care around the steps and the handwheels underneath the side of the wagon.  Note that the steps have guards below them to protect them during production and shipping.  It is suggested to leave these guards in place until the majority of the finishing work on the wagon has been completed, to minimise the risk of damage during handling.

Once the majority of the support structure has been removed, carefully go over the wagon and cut away the small supports which typically extend from one part to another including, for example, inside the coupler housing.  An Exacto type hobby knife with a sharp pointed blade (Exacto #11 or similar) is quite useful for getting into the nooks and crannies.  

Go over the model and smooth off any remnants of the fine supports, expecially in the visible areas.  A sanding stick or small file can be useful for this.

Bogie and Coupler Mounting Holes


The mounting holes for the couplers and bogies have been printed at 1.8 mm diameter to suit 2-56 screws.  

Due to the difficulty of tapping blind holes, the 3D print includes vertical grooves in the sides of the holes to help the screws cut their own threads, so tapping the holes is not required nor recommended.
Note: An economical source of 2-56 screws in various lengths is Little Bird Electronics.

Bogies


HO Scale - The suggested bogies are Kadee #569 or #1569, the only difference being the width of the wheels.  Both Atlas and Athearn make similar bogies, but the advantage of the Kadee ones is that they add some weight to the wagon due to the use of a relatively heavy plastic material.  Note that the depth of the blind holes is 3.4 mm for the HO model.  If using Kadee bogies, the supplied screws may need trimming to avoid damaging the floor of the wagon.

Sn3½ Scale - Marbelup Models makes specific bogies for the XM wagon, representing the prototype's standard gauge bogies with narrow wheelsets.  The wheels should be larger than is normal for narrow gauge wagons.  Suitable wheels (14 mm diameter, 26 mm axles) are available from Hollywood Foundry.  The method of assembly for the bogies is the same as for the WMC hopper wagons except that the holes for the fixing screws are inclined at 10° above the horizontal so that the axles do not get in the way of the screwdriver.



Couplers


The WMC/WMD is designed for Kadee "whisker" couplers.  Either the #158 (scale size) or #148 (normal size) couplers can be used, with #262 draft gear boxes.  Couplers are also available from Kadee in bulk packs without draft gear boxes.

The draft gear boxes supplied with the #148 or #158 couplers do not fit as they have a different mounting hole position.  The #262 draft gear boxes, which are available separately, are narrower and have been used because they allow details such as the brake hoses to be positioned the scale distance from the wagon centre line.  Also, the #262 draft gear boxes are easier to use as the lid snaps into position.

For the HO model, the coupler fixing screws should be trimmed to about 3.8 mm so the top of screw is flush with the deck of the wagon.  One option is to use a metal 2-56 screw to form the thread in the plastic material, then use a Kadee Nylon 2-56 screw for the final installation, which is easier to cut to length.

Note that the height from rail level to the top of coupler mounting surface should be 11.5 mm, the standard for Kadee couplers.

Wire Details


There are quite a few details to be added from brass wire.  The following sequence is suggested:

Discharge Doors Mechanism


Note that the eight 4-spoke handwheels have been printed as part of the model.  In addition, some spares have been printed at the end of each of the discharge hoppers.  Carefully cut away the spare handwheels using a sharp knife, and retain in case of any breakages.  Smooth off any remnants of the attachment points on the ends of the hoppers.


The longitudinal shafts are shown in blue on the diagram above.  Suggested sizes are as follows:

  • HO, Outer Shafts: 0.6 mm wire, 25.75 mm long (4 required)
  • HO, Inner Shafts: 0.6 mm wire, 27.5 mm long (4 required)
  • Sn3½, Outer Shafts: 0.8 mm wire, 35 mm long (4 required)
  • Sn3½, Inner Shafts: 0.8 mm wire, 37.5 mm long (4 required)

The transverse shafts are shown in red on the diagram above.  Suggested sizes are as follows:

  • HO: 0.4 mm wire, 12.75 mm long (4 required)
  • Sn3½: 0.5 mm wire, 16.5 mm long (4 required)

Before installing the various shafts, clean out the holes in 3D-printed material with a pin vice and drill bit fractionally larger than the wire size, e.g. 0.05 - 0.1 mm larger.  Drill carefully to avoid breaking any of the parts from the model.  For the longitudinal shafts, another option for cleaning out the holes is to cut a spare piece of wire, say about 100 mm long, at an angle with sidecutters, so as to leave a slightly ragged edge.  By holding this wire in a pin vice, it can be used as a crude drill to ream the three holes for each shaft.

Secure all the wire pieces in position with superglue.

Brake Rods


The are five brake rods to be formed from brass wire.  Suggested sizes are as follows:

HO Scale:
  • Rod A - 0.4 mm wire, 24 mm long, bent 90° one end
  • Rod B - 0.4 mm wire, 19.5 mm long, bent 90° one end
  • Rod C - 0.4 mm wire, 11.75 mm long, bent 90° both ends *
  • Rod D - 0.4 mm wire, 6.4 mm long, bent 90° one end
  • Rod E - 0.4 mm wire, 36.5 mm long, bent 90° one end
S Scale:
  • Rod A - 0.4 mm wire, 32.5 mm long, bent 90° one end
  • Rod B - 0.4 mm wire, 26.5 mm long, bent 90° one end
  • Rod C - 0.4 mm wire, 20 mm long, bent 90° both ends *
  • Rod D - 0.4 mm wire, 9 mm long, bent 90° one end
  • Rod E - 0.4 mm wire, 50 mm long, bent 90° one end
* Fixing hole for "chain" end of Rod C is marked by a dimple on the underside - drill through from underneath.

Secure all the wire pieces in position with superglue.

Brake Rods - Top View (Hopper hidden for clarity)

Vertical Handrails


Each of the vertical posts at the corners of the hopper has a vertical handrail, which can be formed from 0.4 mm brass wire.  The distance between the hole centres is 10.5 mm for HO, and 14.25 mm for S scale.

Corner Handrails


Small starter holes have been provided to locate the handrails near the handbrake at each end of the wagon..  The handrails can be formed from 0.4 mm brass wire.  The holes should be drilled out, e.g. with a 0.45 mm drill bit.

Viewed from above, the corner handrails are L-shaped, the longer leg of the "L" being parallel to the side of the wagon.

For HO, the horizontal legs of the "L" are 3 mm and 2.5 mm long.  The vertical legs of the handrail should be 5.5 mm long, including an allowance of  0.5 mm to be glued into the fixing holes.

For S scale, the horizontal legs of the "L" are 4.5 mm and 3.5 mm long.  The vertical legs of the handrail should be 7.5 mm long, including an allowance of  0.5 mm to be glued into the fixing holes.

Ratchet Handbrake Lever


A short length of 0.4 mm brass wire can be used to simulate the lever of the ratchet handbrake on each end of the wagon.  The length of the wire should be approx. 5.5 mm in HO and 7.5 mm in S scale.Glue the wire into the vertical groove in the handbrake assembly.  The bottom of the wire should be level with the bottom of the groove, with the remainder of the wire projecting upwards.

Uncoupling Levers


A spiggot with a vertical fixing hole has been provided underneath the wagon, next to the coupler, as well as a notched bracket towards the left side of the wagon, when view from the end.  The uncoupling lever can be shaped from 0.4 mm brass wire, with a 90 degree bend for attachment into the central fixing hole.   The diagrams below show the approximate shape to aim for, but feel free to adjust the measurements to suit your model.

After positioning the uncoupling levers, check that the coupler can swing freely and is not obstructed.  After fixing the uncoupling levers in place, it should still be possible to remove the coupler and draught gear box, e.g. for painting the wagon, by sliding it out towards the end of the wagon.

S Scale - Approximate Measurements
HO Scale - Approximate Measurements




Air Brake Hoses


Small brackets are provided next to the couplers on each end of the wagon for air brake hoses.  Cast plastic hoses in HO scale are available from Detail Associates, part number 6206.  In lieu of equivalent hose in S scale, the HO ones could be used also.  Carefully drill out the starter hole provided in the supporting bracket to suit the diameter of the "pipe" on the air hose.  A suggested drill size is 0.65 mm.


Cross Braces

The top of the hopper had small notches on the inside to accommodate 7 cross braces cut from 0.75 x 1 mm styrene strip.  The HO, the length should be 31 mm and, for S scale, 42 mm.  The braces should be pushed to the bottom of the notches so that the top of the braces is slightly below the top of the sides, as indicated by prototype photos.

Photo from Weston Langford collection showing cross braces.

Weighting


If required, additional weight can be added by gluing lead shot or small pieces of sheet lead in the gap between the two sets of hopper doors, and/or between the various frame members of the underframe where it would not be seen in normal operation.

Painting


Either enamel or acrylic hobby paints can be used to paint the finished model.  

Thursday, 13 August 2015

About Marbelup Models

Marbelup Models is developing a range of models based on narrow gauge locomotives and rolling stock of the Western Australian Government Railways (WAGR).

The models are in Sn3½ scale which is 1:64 scale, running on 16.5 mm gauge track to correctly represent the narrow gauge look of the prototype which is 1067 mm (3ft 6in) gauge.

Some models are also available of WAGR Standard Gauge rolling stock in HO scale.


The models illustrated here have been produced by 3D printing based on detailed artwork generated from a combination of original WAGR drawings, prototype photographs and, where possible, measurements of real rolling stock.


Wednesday, 29 July 2015

WF/WFW/WFDY Assembly Tips

Removing Support Structures


Carefully remove the support structure from the wagon.  It is suggested to use a sharp knife to cut the supports away from visible areas.  Take particular care around the steps.  Note that the steps have guards below them to protect them during production and shipping.  It is suggested to leave these guards in place until the majority of the finishing work on the wagon has been completed, to minimise the risk of damage during handling.

Once the majority of the support structure has been removed, carefully go over the wagon and cut away the small supports which typically extend from one part to another including, for example, inside the coupler housing.  An Exacto type hobby knife with a sharp pointed blade (Exacto #11 or similar) is quite useful for getting into the nooks and crannies.  

Go over the model and smooth off any remnants of the fine supports, expecially in the visible areas.  A sanding stick or small file can be useful for this.

Stiffening Rods (Optional)


The WF model includes provision for two metal rods to be inserted within the underframe structure to provide stiffness and guard against possible future warping of the plastic material over time.  Each of the transverse frame members includes two holes approx. 2.2 mm diameter, as part of the 3D print.  The metal rods also add a bit of weight to the wagon.

Location of Stiffening Rods

On the end sill, the hole for the stiffening rod is covered over by a 0.5 mm layer of plastic, opposite the handbrake assembly, as pictured below.  This can easily be drilled through for installation of the rod.  There is a corresponding hole on the diagonally opposite corner of the wagon.

Location of Hole for Stiffening Rod

The rods should be a maximum of 2 mm diameter and 188 mm long.  They can be of any strong metal, e.g. steel or brass.  One source of steel rod is threaded push-rods sold for radio controlled models by manufacturers such as Du-Bro, and available from many hobby shops.  These have a threaded section at one end, but the remainder of the rod is plain, about 1.85 mm diameter. Different lengths are available, e.g. Du-Bro #172 and #173.  Longer lengths are better as several pieces can be cut from it with less wastage.

Once the rod has been glued into position, the hole in the end sill can be filled with modelling putty and lightly sanded to restore the flat surface prior to painting.

Bogie and Coupler Mounting Holes


The mounting holes for the couplers and bogies have been printed at 1.8 mm diameter to suit 2-56 screws.  

Due to the difficulty of tapping the blind holes for the bogies, the 3D print includes vertical grooves in the sides of the holes to help the screws cut their own threads, so tapping the holes is not required nor recommended.  Note that the depth of the blind holes is 4.4 mm.  If using Kadee bogies, the supplied screws may need trimming to avoid damaging the floor of the wagon.

The maximum length for the coupler fixing screws is 4 mm.

Note: An economical source of 2-56 screws in various lengths is Little Bird Electronics.

Bogies


The suggested bogies are Kadee #569 or #1569, the only difference being the width of the wheels.  Both Atlas and Athearn make similar bogies, but the advantage of the Kadee ones is that they add some weight to the wagon due to the use of a relatively heavy plastic material.

Couplers


The WMC/WMD is designed for Kadee "whisker" couplers.  Either the #158 (scale size) or #148 (normal size) couplers can be used, with #262 draft gear boxes.

The draft gear boxes supplied with the couplers do not fit as they have a different mounting hole position.  The #262 draft gear boxes, which are available separately, are narrower and have been used because they allow details such as the brake hoses to be positioned the scale distance from the wagon centre line.  Also, the #262 draft gear boxes are easier to use as the lid snaps into position.

Because of the deep end sill on the WF series of wagons, the model has been designed so the coupler and draft gear box slides into a recess via a hole in the end sill.  Make sure that any remnants of support structure from the 3D printing process have been cleaned up from inside the coupler mounting recess.

The draft gear box will probably be a snug fit inside the mounting recess.  A hole had been provided for a 2-56 fixing screw to prevent the coupler from being pulled out.  Note that the maximum length of the screw is 4 mm, so it is likely the screw will have to be cut to length.  Provided a metal screw is first used to create a thread in the provided hole, a nylon screw (e.g. Kadee #256) can be used for the permanent fixing.  A nylon screw is much easier to cut to the desired length.

Note that the height from rail level to the top of coupler mounting surface should be 11.5 mm, the standard for Kadee couplers.

Handrails


Small starter holes have been provided to locate the square-shaped handrail near the handbrake at each end of the wagon..  The handrail can be formed from 0.4 mm brass wire.  The holes should be drilled out, e.g. with a 0.45 mm drill bit.  The diagram below indicates the dimensions for bending the wire handrail.


Ratchet Handbrake Lever


A short length, approx. 7.5 mm, of 0.4 mm brass wire can be used to simulate the lever of the ratchet handbrake on the end of the wagon.  Glue the wire into the vertical groove in the handbrake assembly.  The top of the wire should be level with the top of the groove, with the remainder of the wire projecting downwards.

Air Brake Hoses


Small brackets are provided next to the couplers on each end of the wagon for air brake hoses.  Cast plastic hoses are available from Detail Associates, part number 6206.  Carefully drill out the starter hole provided in the supporting bracket to suit the diameter of the "pipe" on the air hose.  A suggested drill size is 0.65 mm.

Uncoupling Levers


A small starter hole has been provided underneath the coupler, as well as a notched bracket towards the left side of the wagon, when view from the end.  The uncoupling lever can be shaped from 0.4 mm brass wire, with a 90 degree bend for attachment into the central fixing hole.   The horizontal portion of the uncoupling lever should be approx. 14 mm long.  The diagram below shows the approximate shape to aim for.



Weighting


If required, additional weight can be added by gluing lead shot or small pieces of sheet lead between the various frame members of the underframe where it would not be seen in normal operation.


Iron Ore Containers


Apart from removing any remaining supports from the 3D printing process, the iron ore containers require little preparation.

The HO version of the container includes two projecting pieces, highlighted in yellow below, which should be cut off and filed/sanded flush with the bottom of the slightly larger, angled projections.  The larger, angled projections are intended to fit into the recesses in the deck of the WFW flat wagon to position the containers.

The reason for the deeper projections is to prevent the angled projections from being sanded flat if the printing supports are removed in the i.Materialise factory.



Painting


Either enamel or acrylic hobby paints can be used to paint the finished model.  The model pictured has been painted with Testors Model Master Enamel colour "Gelb RLM 04".  (Gelb is German for yellow!)